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Zoonosis
Other names Zoönosis
Rabid dog.jpg
A dog with rabies .
Pronunciation
Specialty Infectious disease

Zoonoses (also known as zoonosis and as zoonotic diseases) are infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites that spread between animals (usually vertebrates ) and humans.

Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of swine and bird flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 swine flu . Taenia solium infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions. Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses , bacteria , fungi and parasites ; of 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic. Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve animal to human transmission, like rabies , are considered direct zoonosis.

Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air ( influenza ) or through bites and saliva ( rabies ). In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector ), which carry the disease pathogen without getting infected. When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis . The term is from Greek : ζῷον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "sickness".

ContentsCauses[ edit ]

Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is companionistic (pets), economic (farming, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research contact with or consumption of non-human animals, non-human animal products, or non-human animal derivatives.

Contamination of food or water supply[ edit ]

The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7 , Campylobacter , Caliciviridae , and Salmonella .

In 2006, a conference held in Berlin was focusing on the issue of zoonotic pathogen effects on food safety , urging governments to intervene, and the public to be vigilant towards the risks of catching food-borne diseases from farm-to-table dining.

Many food outbreaks can be linked to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food can be contaminated that have a non-human animal origin. Some common foods linked to zoonotic contaminations include eggs, seafood, meat, dairy, and even some vegetables. Food outbreaks should be handled in preparedness plans to prevent widespread outbreaks and to efficiently and effectively contain outbreaks.

Farming, ranching and non-human animal husbandry[ edit ]

Contact with farm animals can lead to disease in farmers or others that come into contact with infected farm animals. Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys . Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for workers in slaughterhouses, tanneries and wool mills. Close contact with sheep who have recently given birth can lead to clamydiosis , or enzootic abortion, in pregnant women, as well as an increased risk of Q fever , toxoplasmosis , and listeriosis in pregnant or the otherwise immunocompromised. Echinococcosis is caused by a tapeworm which can be spread from infected sheep by food or water contaminated with feces or wool. Bird flu is common in chickens. While rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause a pandemic like the 1918 Spanish flu . In 2017, free range chickens in the UK were temporarily ordered to remain inside due to the threat of bird flu. Cattle are an important reservoir of cryptosporidiosis and mainly affects the immunocompromised.

Practicing veterinarians are exposed to unique occupational hazards and zoonotic diseases . In the US, studies have highlighted an increased risk to injuries and a lack of veterinary awareness for these hazards. Research has proved the importance for continued clinical veterinarian education on occupational risks associated with musculoskeletal injuries, animal bites, needle-sticks, and cuts.

Wild animal attacks[ edit ] Rabies Insect vectors[ edit ] African sleeping sickness Dirofilariasis Eastern equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis Tularemia Venezuelan equine encephalitis West Nile fever Western equine encephalitis Zika fever Pets[ edit ]Further information: Feline zoonosis

Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies . Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia , which are endemic in both non-human animal and human populations. Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of cats; in humans it is a mild disease although it can be dangerous to pregnant women. Dirofilariasis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis through mosquitoes infected by mammals like dogs and cats. Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog ( Toxocara canis ) or the cat ( Toxocara cati ). Cryptosporidiosis  can be spread to humans from pet lizards, such as the leopard gecko . Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidial parasite carried by many mammals, including rabbits, and is an important opportunistic pathogen in people immunocompromised by HIV/AIDS , organ transplantation , or CD4+ T-lymphocyte deficiency.

Exhibition[ edit ] Outbreaks

Outbreaks of zoonoses have been traced to human interaction with and exposure to other animals at fairs , petting zoos , and other settings. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an updated list of recommendations for preventing zoonosis transmission in public settings. The recommendations, developed in conjunction with the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians , include educational responsibilities of venue operators, limiting public and non-human animal contact, and non-human animal care and management.

Hunting and bushmeat[ edit ] HIV Zoophilia[ edit ]Further information: Zoophilia § Health and safety Secondary transmission[ edit ]Ebola and MarburgLists of diseases[ edit ]
Disease Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of wild animals and domestic livestock transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly
Angiostrongyliasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus costaricensis rats, cotton rats consuming raw and/or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed vegetables contaminated with larvae
Anisakiasis Anisakis whales, dolphins, seals, sea lions, other marine animals eating raw and/or undercooked fish and squid contaminated with eggs
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis commonly – grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact of spores
Babesiosis Babesia spp. mice, other animals tick bite
Baylisascariasis Baylisascaris procyonis raccoons ingestion of eggs in feces
Barmah Forest fever Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite
Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens close contact
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Prions cattle eating infected meat
Brucellosis Brucella spp. cattle, goats infected milk or meat
Bubonic plague , Pneumonic plague , Septicemic plague , Sylvatic plague Yersinia pestis rabbits, hares, rodents, ferrets, goats, sheep, camels flea bite
Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi armadillos , Triatominae (kissing bug) bite
Clamydiosis / Enzootic abortion Chlamydophila abortus domestic livestock, particularly sheep close contact with postpartum ewes
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease PrP vCJD cattle eating meat from animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus cattle, goats, sheep, birds, multimammate rats, hares tick bite, contact with bodily fluids
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans commonly – birds like pigeons inhaling fungi
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium spp. cattle, dogs, cats, mice, pigs, horses, deer, sheep, goats, rabbits, leopard geckos, birds ingesting cysts from water contaminated with feces
Cysticercosis and taeniasis Taenia solium , Taenia asiatica , Taenia saginata commonly – pigs and cattle consuming water, soil or food contaminated with the tapeworm eggs (cysticercosis) or raw or undercooked pork contaminated with the cysticerci (taeniasis)
Dirofilariasis Dirofilaria spp. dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, cats, monkeys, raccoons, bears, muskrats, rabbits, leopards, seals, sea lions, beavers, ferrets, reptiles mosquito bite
Eastern equine encephalitis , Venezuelan equine encephalitis , Western equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus , Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus , Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, zebras, birds mosquito bite
Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever ) Ebolavirus spp. chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, shrews, forest antelope and porcupines through body fluids, organs and ticks
Other haemorrhagic fevers ( Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever , Dengue fever , Lassa fever , Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever , Rift Valley fever ) Varies – commonly viruses varies (sometimes unknown) – commonly camels, rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and swine infection usually occurs through direct contact with infected animals
Echinococcosis Echinococcus spp. commonly – dogs, foxes, jackals, wolves, coyotes, sheep, pigs, rodents ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated food or water with feces of an infected, definitive host and/or fur
Fasciolosis Fasciola hepatica , Fasciola gigantica sheep, cattle, buffaloes ingesting contaminated plants
Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases ) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp. animals domesticated for food production (cattle, poultry) raw and/or undercooked food made from animals and unwashed vegetables contaminated with feces
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia beavers, other rodents, raccoons, deer, cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats ingesting spores and cysts in food and water contaminated with feces
Glanders Burkholderia mallei. horses, donkeys direct contact
Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spp. dogs, minks, opossums, cats, lions, tigers, leopards, raccoons, poultry, other birds, frogs raw and/or undercooked fish or meat
Hantavirus Hantavirus spp. deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids
Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum birds, bats inhaling fungi in guano
Influenza Influenza A virus horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and farmed carnivores droplets transmitted through air
Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite
Kyasanur Forest disease Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite
La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree squirrels mosquito bite
Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp. dogs, rodents, other animals sandfly bite
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium lepromatosis armadillos, monkeys, rabbits, mice direct contact, including meat consumption. However, scientists believe most infections are spread human to human.
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans rats, mice, pigs, horses, goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes, opossums, raccoons, mongooses, foxes, dogs direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals
Lassa fever Lassa fever virus rodents exposure to rodents
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rodents exposure to urine, feces, or saliva
Microsporidiosis Encephalitozoon cuniculi Rabbits, dogs, mice, and other mammals ingestion of spores
Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates, or contaminated materials
Nipah virus infection Nipah virus (NiV) bats, pigs direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs
Orf Orf virus goats, sheep close contact
Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci macaws, cockatiels, budgerigars, pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other bird species contact with bird droplets
Q fever Coxiella burnetii livestock and other domestic animals such as dogs and cats inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces
Rabies Rabies virus commonly – dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, groundhogs, horses, opossums, mongooses and cats through saliva by biting, or through scratches from an infected animal
Rat-bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis , Spirillum minus rats, mice bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions
Rift Valley fever Phlebovirus livestock, buffaloes, camels mosquito bite, contact with bodily fluids, blood, tissues, breathing around butchered animals and/or raw milk
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii dogs, rodents tick bite
Ross River fever Ross River virus kangaroos, wallabies, horses, opossums, birds, flying foxes mosquito bite
Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite
Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus bats close contact, respiratory droplets
Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu , which is a human virus) pigs close contact
Taenia crassiceps infection Taenia crassiceps wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes contact with soil contaminated with feces
Toxocariasis Toxocara canis , Toxocara cati dogs, foxes, cats ingestion of eggs in soil, fresh or unwashed vegetables and/or undercooked meat
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii cats, livestock, poultry exposure to cat feces, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, contaminated soil, water, grass, unwashed vegetables, unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat
Trichinosis Trichinella spp. rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, dogs, foxes, crocodiles, birds eating undercooked meat
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle, deer, llamas, pigs, domestic cats, wild carnivores (foxes, coyotes) and omnivores (possums, mustelids and rodents) milk, exhaled air, sputum, urine, faeces and pus from infected animals
Tularemia Francisella tularensis lagomorphs (type A), rodents (type B), birds ticks, deer flies, and other insects including mosquitoes
West Nile fever Flavivirus birds, horses mosquito bite
Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, monkeys, apes, baboons mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and sometimes bites of monkeys
History[ edit ]

During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Such isolation would have caused epidemic diseases to be restricted to any given local population, because propagation and expansion of epidemics depend on frequent contact with other individuals who have not yet developed an adequate immune response . To persist in such a population, a pathogen either had to be a chronic infection, staying present and potentially infectious in the infected host for long periods, or it had to have other additional species as reservoir where it can maintain itself until further susceptible hosts are contacted and infected. In fact, for many 'human' diseases, the human is actually better viewed as an accidental or incidental victim and a dead-end host . Examples include rabies , anthrax , tularemia and West Nile virus . Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been zoonotic.

Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which diseases jumped from other animals to humans, but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing , that measles , smallpox , influenza , HIV , and diphtheria came to humans this way. Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains originating in other species.

Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations lacking immunity. The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the summer of 2002, causing much distress. Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, as are salmonellosis , Rocky Mountain spotted fever , and Lyme disease .

A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between humans and wildlife. This can be caused either by encroachment of human activity into wilderness areas or by movement of wild animals into areas of human activity. An example of this is the outbreak of Nipah virus in peninsular Malaysia in 1999, when intensive pig farming began on the habitat of infected fruit bats. Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing 105 human deaths.

Similarly, in recent times avian influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to interactions between the carrier host and domestic animals. Highly mobile animals such as bats and birds may present a greater risk of zoonotic transmission than other animals due to the ease with which they can move into areas of human habitation.

Because they depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle, diseases such as African schistosomiasis , river blindness , and elephantiasis are not defined as zoonotic, even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors .

Use in vaccines[ edit ]

The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox . Jenner had noticed that milkmaids were resistant to smallpox. Milkmaids contracted a milder version of the disease from infected cows that conferred cross immunity to the human disease. Jenner abstracted an infectious preparation of 'cowpox' and subsequently used it to inoculate persons against smallpox. As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981.

See also[ edit ] Conservation medicine Cross-species transmission Emerging infectious disease Foodborne illness Wildlife disease Veterinary medicine List of zoonotic primate viruses Veganism#Disease avoidance References[ edit ]^ "Zoonosis" . Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 29 March 2019. WHO. "Zoonoses" . Retrieved 18 December 2014. "A glimpse into Canada's highest containment laboratory for animal health: The National Centre for Foreign Animal Diseases" . science.gc.ca. Government of Canada. 22 October 2018. Zoonoses are infectious diseases which jump from an animal host or reservoir into humans.^ Meseko, Clement; Kumar, Binod; Sanicas, Melvin (19 September 2018), "Preventing Zoonotic Influenza" , Influenza - Therapeutics and Challenges, InTech, doi : 10.5772/intechopen.76966 , ISBN   9781789237146 , retrieved 3 November 2018Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre (6 July 2015). " Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World" . PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (7): e0003919. doi : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003919 . ISSN   1935-2735 . PMC   4493064 . PMID   26147942 .Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME (2001). "Risk factors for human disease emergence" . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 356 (1411): 983–989. doi : 10.1098/rstb.2001.0888 . PMC   1088493 . PMID   11516376 .Marx PA, Apetrei C, Drucker E (October 2004). "AIDS as a zoonosis? Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics". Journal of medical primatology. 33 (5–6): 220–6. doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2004.00078.x . PMID   15525322 . "Zoonosis" . Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 30 January 2013.Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC (2014). "Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals" . PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e89055. doi : 10.1371/journal.pone.0089055 . PMC   3938448 . PMID   24586500 . Retrieved 18 December 2014.Humphrey T, O'Brien S, Madsen M (2007). "Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: A food production perspective". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 117 (3): 237–257. doi : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.01.006 . PMID   17368847 .Cloeckaert A (2006). "Introduction: emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in the zoonotic foodborne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter". Microbes and Infection. 8 (7): 1889–1890. doi : 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.12.024 . PMID   16714136 .Frederick, A. Murphy (1999). "The Threat Posed by the Global Emergence of Livestock, Food-borne, and Zoonotic Pathogens". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 894: 20–7. doi : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08039.x . PMID   10681965 .Med-Vet-Net. "Priority Setting for Foodborne and Zoonotic Pathogens" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2008. "Investigating Foodborne Outbreaks" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2013. "Inhalation Anthrax" . www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 26 March 2017. "Avian flu: Poultry to be allowed outside under new rules" . BBC News. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.Lassen, Brian; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi L (5 June 2014). "Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia" . Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 56 (1): 36. doi : 10.1186/1751-0147-56-36 . ISSN   0044-605X . PMC   4089559 . PMID   24902957 .Rood, Kerry A.; Pate, Michael L. (2 January 2019). "Assessment of Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Palpation, Infection Control Practices, and Zoonotic Disease Risks among Utah Clinical Veterinarians" . Journal of Agromedicine. 24 (1): 35–45. doi : 10.1080/1059924X.2018.1536574 . ISSN   1059-924X . PMID   30362924 .Prevention, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and. "Toxoplasmosis - General Information - Pregnant Women" . www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2017.Weese, J. Scott (2011). Companion animal zoonoses. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 282–284. ISBN   9780813819648 .Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). "Compendium of Measures To Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2005: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV)" (PDF). MMWR. 54 (RR–4): inclusive page numbers. Retrieved 28 December 2008.Information in this table is largely compiled from: World Health Organization. "Zoonoses and the Human-Animal-Ecosystems Interface" . Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral" . World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2019.Kumar, Binod; Asha, Kumari; Khanna, Madhu; Ronsard, Larance; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Sanicas, Melvin (3 November 2018). "The emerging influenza virus threat: status and new prospects for its therapy and control". Archives of Virology. 163 (4): 831–844. doi : 10.1007/s00705-018-3708-y . ISSN   1432-8798 . PMID   29322273 .Khanna, M.; Kumar, P.; Choudhary, K.; Kumar, B.; Vijayan, V. K. (November 2008). "Emerging influenza virus: a global threat". Journal of Biosciences. 33 (4): 475–482. doi : 10.1007/s12038-008-0066-z . ISSN   0250-5991 . PMID   19208973 . "Parasites - Leishmaniasis" . CDC. Retrieved 19 June 2019. "Leishmaniasis" . World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2019.^ Clark, Laura. "How Armadillos Can Spread Leprosy" . Smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.Shute, Nancy. "Leprosy From An Armadillo? That's An Unlikely Peccadillo" . NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 16 April 2017.Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009). "Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health". Crit Rev Microbiol. 35 (3): 221–70. doi : 10.1080/10408410902989837 . PMID   19548807 .Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2001). "Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife". Acta tropica. 78 (2): 103–116. doi : 10.1016/S0001-706X(00)00179-0 . PMID   11230820 .Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001). "The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. 3 (4): 307–314. doi : 10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01384-3 . PMID   11334748 .Bibliography[ edit ] Bardosh, K. One Health: Science, Politics and Zoonotic Disease in Africa. 2016. Routledge; London, UK. ISBN   978-1-138-96148-7 .H. Krauss, A. Weber, M. Appel, B. Enders, A. v. Graevenitz, H. D. Isenberg, H. G. Schiefer, W. Slenczka, H. Zahner: Zoonoses. Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans. 3rd Edition, 456 pages. ASM Press. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2003. ISBN   1-55581-236-8 .Jorge Guerra González (2010), Infection Risk and Limitation of Fundamental Rights by Animal-To-Human Transplantations. EU, Spanish and German Law with Special Consideration of English Law (in German), Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac, ISBN   978-3-8300-4712-4 David Quammen (2013). Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. ISBN   978-0-393-34661-9 .External links[ edit ]
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