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Alphaproteobacteria - Wikipedia AlphaproteobacteriaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaClass of bacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
Wolbachia.png
Transmission electron micrograph of Wolbachia within an insect cell.
Credit: Public Library of Science / Scott O'Neill
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Garrity et al . 2006
Subclasses

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy ). Its members are highly diverse and possess few commonalities, but nevertheless share a common ancestor. Like all Proteobacteria , its members are gram-negative and some of its intracellular parasitic members lack peptidoglycan and are consequently gram variable.

ContentsCharacteristics[ edit ]

The Alphaproteobacteria are a diverse taxon and comprises several phototrophic genera, several genera metabolising C1-compounds ( e.g. , Methylobacterium spp. ), symbionts of plants (e.g., Rhizobium spp. ), endosymbionts of arthropods ( Wolbachia ) and intracellular pathogens ( e.g. Rickettsia ). Moreover, the class includes (as an extinct member) the protomitochondrion , the bacterium that was engulfed by the eukaryotic ancestor and gave rise to the mitochondria , which are organelles in eukaryotic cells (See endosymbiotic theory ). A species of technological interest is Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens ): scientists often use this species to transfer foreign DNA into plant genomes. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria , such as Pelagibacter ubique , are alphaproteobacteria that are a widely distributed and may constitute over 10% of the open ocean microbial community.

Evolution and genomics[ edit ]

There is some disagreement on the phylogeny of the orders , especially for the location of the Pelagibacterales , but overall there is some consensus. The discord stems from the large difference in gene content ( e.g. genome streamlining in Pelagibacter ubique ) and the large difference in GC-content between members of several orders. Specifically, Pelagibacterales , Rickettsiales and Holosporales contain species with AT-rich genomes. [ jargon ] It has been argued [ by whom? ] that it could be a case of convergent evolution that would result in an artefactual clustering. However, several studies disagree.

Furthermore, it has been found that the GC-content of ribosomal RNA (the traditional phylogenetic marker for prokaryotes) little reflects the GC-content of the genome. One example of this atypical decorrelation of ribosomal GC-content with phylogeny is that members of the Holosporales have a much higher ribosomal GC-content than members of the Pelagibacterales and Rickettsiales , even though they are more closely related to species with high genomic GC-contents than to members of the latter two orders.

The Class Alphaproteobacteria is divided into three subclasses Magnetococcidae , Rickettsidae and Caulobacteridae . The basal group is Magnetococcidae , which is composed by a large diversity of magnetotactic bacteria , but only one is described, Magnetococcus marinus . The Rickettsidae is composed of the intracellular Rickettsiales and the free-living Pelagibacterales . The Caulobacteridae is composed of the Holosporales , Rhodospirillales , Sphingomonadales , Rhodobacterales , Caulobacterales , Kiloniellales , Kordiimonadales , Parvularculales and Sneathiellales .

Comparative analyses of the sequenced genomes have also led to discovery of many conserved insertion-deletions (indels) in widely distributed proteins and whole proteins (i.e. signature proteins ) that are distinctive characteristics of either all Alphaproteobacteria , or their different main orders (viz. Rhizobiales , Rhodobacterales , Rhodospirillales , Rickettsiales , Sphingomonadales and Caulobacterales ) and families (viz. Rickettsiaceae , Anaplasmataceae , Rhodospirillaceae , Acetobacteraceae , Bradyrhiozobiaceae , Brucellaceae and Bartonellaceae ).

These molecular signatures provide novel means for the circumscription of these taxonomic groups and for identification/assignment of new species into these groups. Phylogenetic analyses and conserved indels in large numbers of other proteins provide evidence that Alphaproteobacteria have branched off later than most other phyla and Classes of Bacteria except Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria .

Phylogeny[ edit ]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA -based LTP release 106 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project

? Aquaspirillum polymorphum (Williams and Rittenberg 1957) Hylemon et al . 1973

? Furvibacter Lee et al . 2007

? Kopriimonas byunsanensis Kwon et al . 2005

? Magnetococcus marinus Bazylinski et al . 2012 (in press)

? Micavibrio aeruginosavorus Lambina et al . 1983

? Polymorphum gilvum Cai 2010

? Reyranella massiliensis Pagnier et al . 2011

? Ronia tepidophila

? Subaequorebacter tamlense Lee 2006

? Tuberoidobacter mutans

? Vibrio adaptatus Muir et al . 1990

? Vibrio cyclosites Muir et al . 1990

Rhodovibrio

Rhodospirillaceae 2

Tistrella

Rhodospirillaceae 3

Rhodospirillaceae 4

Defluviicoccus vanus Maszenan et al. 2005

Elioraea tepidiphila Albuquerque et al. 2008

Acetobacteraceae

Rickettsiales [incl. Mitochondrion ]

Sneathiella

Sphingomonadaceae [incl. Erythrobacteraceae , Caulobacter leidyi , Asticcacaulis ]

Rhodothalassium salexigens (Drews 1982) Imhoff et al . 1998

Kordiimonas

Rhodospirillaceae 1 [incl. Roseospirillum parvum , Kiloniella laminariae , Terasakiella pusilla ]

Rhizobiales [incl. Caulobacteraceae , Rhodobacteraceae , Parvularcula ]

Notes:
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN).

Aquaspirillum

Aquaspirillum is now regarded to belong to Betaproteobacteria . A newer tree based on 16S and 23S rRNA (and other data) is given by Ferla et al . (2013) as follows:

Schematic ribosomal RNA phylogeny of Alphaproteobacteria
   Magnetococcidae   

  Magnetococcus marinus

   Caulobacteridae   

  Rhodospirillales , Sphingomonadales ,
  Rhodobacteraceae , Rhizobiales , etc .

  Holosporales

   Rickettsidae   
   Pelagibacterales   
   Pelagibacteraceae   

  Pelagibacter

  Subgroups Ib, II, IIIa, IIIb, IV and V

   Rickettsiales   

  Proto-mitochondria

   Anaplasmataceae   

  Ehrlichia

  Anaplasma

  Wolbachia

  Neorickettsia

   Midichloriaceae   

  Midichloria

   Rickettsiaceae   

  Rickettsia

  Orientia

The cladogram of Rickettsidae has been inferred by Ferla et al. from the comparison of 16S + 23S ribosomal RNA sequences.

An updated phylogeny of the alphaproteobacteria was published in which the position of the Mitochondria is not clear yet.

Natural genetic transformation[ edit ]

Although only a few studies have been reported on natural genetic transformation in the Alphaproteobacteria , this process has been described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Methylobacterium organophilum , and Bradyrhizobium japonicum . Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the intervening medium, and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome by homologous recombination .

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PMID   17160641 .Sayers; et al. "Alphaproteobacteria" . National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project . "16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database . Retrieved 2011-11-17.Roger, Andrew J.; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A.; Kamikawa, Ryoma (2017-11-01). "The Origin and Diversification of Mitochondria" . Current Biology. 27 (21): R1177–R1192. doi : 10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.015 . ISSN   0960-9822 .Demanèche S, Kay E, Gourbière F, Simonet P (2001). "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil" . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): 2617–21. doi : 10.1128/AEM.67.6.2617-2621.2001 . PMC   92915 . PMID   11375171 .O'Connor M, Wopat A, Hanson RS (1977). "Genetic transformation in Methylobacterium organophilum " . J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1): 265–72. doi : 10.1099/00221287-98-1-265 . PMID   401866 .Raina JL, Modi VV (1972). "Deoxyribonucleate binding and transformation in Rhizobium jpaonicum " . J. Bacteriol. 111 (2): 356–60. PMC   251290 . PMID   4538250 .External links[ edit ] Alphaproteobacteria at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Phylogeny Webpage: Alpha Proteobacteria. Retrieved from " https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alphaproteobacteria&oldid=1013340578 " Categories : Alphaproteobacteria Bacteria classes Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles with 'species' microformats All articles that are too technical Wikipedia articles that are too technical from December 2018 All articles needing expert attention Articles needing expert attention from December 2018 Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2018 Navigation menuPersonal toolsNot logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Namespaces Article Talk VariantsViews Read Edit View history MoreSearch
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