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[Portugal]
to 11 Nov 1975
[Langhans'
                            proposal for Portuguese Angola, 1967]
1967 (proposed colonial flag)
[Angola flag]
Adopted 11 Nov 1975

"Angola Avante"
(Forward Angola) 

Adopted 11 Nov 1975
Constitution
(5 Feb 2010; in Portuguese)
------------------------------

(11 Nov 1975 - 5 Feb 2010)
Capital : Luanda
(1912-1927 Humbo;
1927-1975 Nova Lisboa;
1576-1912 Loanda)
Currency : Kwanza (AOA);
Angolan Escudo (AOS) 1911-77
National Holiday : 11 Nov (1975)
Dia da Independ�ncia
(Independence Day)
Population : 30,355,880
GDP : $193.6 billion (2017)
Exports :  $33.07 billion (2017)
Imports : $19.5 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups : Ovimbundu 25.2%, Kimbundu 23.1%,
Bakongo 12.6%,
Lwenea (Luvale) 8.2%, Chokwe 5%, Kwanyam 4.1%, Nyaneka 3.9%, Luchazi 2.3%, Ambo (Ovambo) 2%,
Total Armed Forces : 107,000 (2018)
Merchant marine : 55 ships (2017)
Religions : Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%,
other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties IRENA ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OPCW, OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCLOS,
Angola Index
Chronology
1482                       Discovered by Portuguese under Diogo C�o.
 1 Feb 1575                Portuguese colony (Angola donatar�a ).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Angola along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1589                       Crown colony (Portuguese West Africa). 
26 Aug 1641-21/24 Aug 1648 Dutch occupation of coastal areas forcing
                             the Portuguese into the interior (Dutch
                             West Africa)(in Luanda [Fort Aardenburgh]
                             26 Aug 1641 - 21/24 Aug 1648; Benguela Sep 1641
                             - 1648; Ensandeira Island 1645/46-1648). 
14 Feb 1885                Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin
                             Conference.
15 Aug 1914                Portuguese West Africa colony (sometimes 
                             called simply Angola).
31 Oct 1914 -  7 Jul 1915   German South West Africa forces under Victor Franke
                             invade Southern Portuguese Angola.
11 Jun 1951                Angola overseas province of Portugal.
  4 Feb 1961 � 25 Apr 1974  Angolan war of independence.
 5 Apr 1962                Angolan Revolutionary Government in Exile (GRAE)
                             (from 1972, Supreme Council of the Liberation
                             of Angola) established in Congo (Kinshasa).
11 Nov 1975                Independence from Portugal (People's Republic 
                             of Angola).
27 Aug 1992                Republic of Angola

States

(1975-1976,
 1979-2002)
 
 

Chairman of the Central Committee of the P eople's Liberation Movement of Angola
(from Dec 1977, People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola-
Party of Labor )
Dec 1962 - 10 Sep 1979     Ant�nio Agostinho Neto             (b. 1922 - d. 1979)
                             (in exile to 4 Feb 1975 [in L�opoldville
                             to Nov 1963, then] in Brazzaville])
President of the Central Committee of the P eople's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor
20 Sep 1979 -  8 Sep 2018  Jos� Eduardo dos Santos            (b. 1942)
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 26 Mar 1991)


Captain-governor  Donat�rio

 1 Feb 1575 �  9 May 1589  Paulo Dias de Novais               (b. c.1510 - d. 1589)
Captain-major
1589 - 1591                Lu�s Serr�o
Governors
1591 - Jun 1592            Andr� Ferreira Pereira
24 Jun 1592 �  8 Apr 1593  Francisco de Almeida               (b. c.1550 � d. af.1613)
1593 � Aug 1594            Jer�nimo de Almeida
 1 Aug 1594 - 1602         Jo�o Furtado de Mendon�a
1602 - 1603                Jo�o Rodrigues Coutinho            (d. 1603)
1603 - 1606                Manuel Cerveira Pereira (1st time) (d. 1626)
1606 - 1607                Paio de Araujo de Azevedo
Sep 1607 - 11 Apr 1611     Manuel Pereira Forjaz              (d. 1611)
15 Apr 1611 - 1615         Bento Banha Cardoso (captain-major)
1615 � 11 Apr 1617         Manuel Cerveira Pereira (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Apr 1617 � Nov 1617     Antonio Gon�alves Pita 
Nov 1617 - 1621            Lu�s Mendes de Vasconcelos         (b. c.1542 - d. 1623)
Sep 1621 - 1623            Jo�o Correia de Sousa              (d. 1626)
1623 (5 months)            Pedro de Sousa Coelho (captain-major)
1623 - 1624                Sim�o de Mascarenhas, bispo de
                             Congo e Angola
Feb 1624 -  4 Sep 1630     Fern�o de Sousa                    (b. c.1570 - d. 16..)
 4 Sep 1630 - 1634         Manuel Pereira Coutinho
1634 - 18 Oct 1639         Francisco de Vasconcelos da Cunha
18 Oct 1639 - 1645         Pedro C�sar de Meneses             (d. 1666)
                             (from Aug 1641, at Bengo River then Massangano
                             in opposition to Dutch rule)
Dutch Directors
29 Aug 1641 - 12 Sep 1642  Pieter Moorthamer (Mortamer)
                          
+ Cornelis Nieulant
1642 - 1648                Cornelis Hendrikszoon Ouman
                             (to 1644 and from 1646)
                           + Hendrik Redinkhoven (1643-1646/47)
                           + Adriaen Lens (from 1646/47)
Governors
Sep 1645 - May 1646        Francisco de Souto-Maior
                             (in Massangano opposition to Dutch rule)
May 1646 - 24 Aug 1648     Triumvirate Junta
                           - Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos da Cunha
                             (chairman of the Junta)
                           - Ant�nio Teixeira de Mendon�a
                           - Jo�o Zuzarte de Andrade
                          
(captains-major)
24 Aug 1648 - 1651         Salvador Correia de S�
Benavides    (b. 1602 - d. 1688) 
Oct 1651 - 1653            Rodrigo de Miranda Henriques       (b. c.1600 - d. 1653)
1653 - Oct 1655            Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos 
                             da Cunha ( captain-major )
Oct 1655 - 18 Apr 1658     Lu�s Martins de Sousa Chichorro    (d. 1658)
18 Apr 1658 - 1661         Jo�o Fernandes Vieira              (b. c.1613 - d. 1681)
10 May 1661 - 20 Aug 1666  Andr� Vidal de Negreiros           (b. 1606 - d. 1680)
20 Aug 1666 - Jan 1667     Trist�o da Cunha
Jan 1667 - 1668            Chamber Senate
                           - Ant�nio de Araujo de Azevedo
                             (president of the chamber)
 
                          - Paulo Rebello da Cunha
                           - Roque Vieira de Lima
                           - Paulo Valente
                           - Diogo Vaz Camello 
1668 - 1669                Junta
                           - Thomaz Borges Madureira
                           - Luiz da Silva de Motta
                           - Jo�o de Araujo
                           - Jo�o Cardozo
                           - Gaspar Zuzarte de Andrade
                           - Ant nio Rodrigues de Andrade
1669 - 26 Aug 1669         Junta
                           - Jo�o Marques de Almeida
                           - Ant nio de Estrada
                           - Jo�o de Gouvea
                           - Thomaz Figueira Bult�o
                           - Henrique de Mendon�a
                           - Jo�o Ferreira da Maia
26 Aug 1669 - 1676         Francisco de T�vora conde de Alvor (b. 1646 - d. 1710) 
25 Aug 1676 � 11 Sep 1680  Ayres de Saldanha de Sousa e 
                             Meneses
11 Sep 1680 � 12 Sep 1684  Jo�o da Silva e Sousa
12 Sep 1684 �  8 Sep 1688  Lu�s Lobo da Silva
 8 Sep 1688 �  1 Nov 1691  Jo�o de Lencastre                  (b. 1646 - d. 1707)
 1 Nov 1691 �  3 Nov 1694  Gon�alo da Costa de Alc��ova
                             Carneiro de Menezes
 3 Nov 1694 �  9 Nov 1697  Henrique Jacques de Magalh�es    
  (b. c.1650 - d. 1700)
 9 Nov 1697 � 1700         Lu�s C�sar de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
 5 Sep 1700 - Dec 1702     Bernardino de T�vora e Sousa       (b. c.1630 - d. 1702)
                             Tavares
Dec 1702 � 20 Nov 1705     Chamber Senate
20 Nov 1705 �  4 Oct 1709  Louren�o de Almada                 (b. 1645 - d. 1729)
 4 Oct 1709 � 22 Feb 1713  Ant�nio de Saldanha de Albuquerque (b. c.1670 - d. c.1723)
                             Castro e Ribafria
22 Feb 1713 � 15 Jun 1717  Jo�o Manuel de Noronha             (b. 1679 - d. 1761)
15 Jun 1717 � 22 Mar 1722  Henrique de Figueiredo e Alarc�o   (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
22 Mar 1722 � 25 Apr 1725  Ant�nio de Albuquerque Coelho      (b. 1682 - d. 1745) 
25 Apr 1725 �  7 May 1726  Jos� Carvalho da Costa (acting)
 7 May 1726 � Dec 1732     Paulo Caetano de Albuquerque       (d. 1732)
Dec 1732 �  1 Jan 1733     Chamber Senate
 1 Jan 1733 �  1 Apr 1738  Rodrigo C�sar de Menezes           (b. 1673 - d. 1738)
 1 Apr 1738 � 17 Apr 1748  Joaquim Jacques de Magalh�es       (d. 1748)
17 Apr 1748 � 12 Jan 1749  Governing Junta 
                           - Frei Manoel de Santa In�s        (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
                           - Victoriano de Faria e Mello
                               Varej�o Castello Branco
                           - Fernando Jos� da Cunha Pereira 
12 Jan 1749 � 31 Jul 1753  Ant�nio de Almeida Soares e        (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
                             Portugal, conde do Lavradio
31 Jul 1753 � 14 Oct 1758  Ant�nio �lvares da Cunha           (b. 1700 - d. 1791)
14 Oct 1758 �  6 Jun 1764  Ant�nio de Vasconcelos
 6 Jun 1764 � 21 Nov 1772  Francisco Inoc�ncio de Sousa       (b. 1726 - d. 1780)
                             Coutinho
21 Nov 1772 �  5 Dec 1779  Ant�nio de Lencastre               (b. 1721 - d. 1788)
 5 Dec 1779 � 19 Dec 1782  Jos� Gon�alo da C�mara Coutinho    (d. 1782)
19 Dec 1782 � Sep 1784     Junta                           
                           - Luiz da Anuncia��o e Azevedo 
                           - Joaquim Manoel Garcia de Castro  (d. 1783)
                               Barbosa (to ... 1783)
                           - Francisco Xavier de Lob�o
                               
Machado Pessanha (from ... 1783)
                           - Jo�o Monteiro de Moraes          (d. 1783)
                               (for 51 days)
                           - Pedro Alvares de Andrade da
                               Cunha Azevedo e Vasconcellos
                               (after Moraes)
Sep 1784 - 1790            Jos� de Almeida e Vasconcelos      (b. 1737 - d. 1812)
                             Soveral Carvalho e Albergaria,
                             bar�o de Moss�medes
1790 - 1797                Manuel de Almeida e Vasconcelos,   (b. 1784 - d. 1832)
                             visconde da Lapa
1797 - 1802                Miguel Ant�nio de Melo             (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
1802 - 1806                Fernando Ant�nio Soares de Noronha (b. 1742 - d. 1814)
1806 � Mar 1807             Governing Junta
                           - Joaquim Maria Mascarenhas Castelo
                               Branco
                           - Duarte Cabreira de Brito e
                               Arvellos
                           - Manoel Pinto Coelho
                           - Eus�bio Castela de Lemos  
Mar 1807 �  7 Jul 1810     Ant�nio de Saldanha da Gama        (b. 1778 - d. 1839)
 7 Jul 1810 �  3 Jul 1816  Jos� de Oliveira Barbosa,
         (b. 1753 - d. 1844) 
                             visconde do Rio Comprido  
 3 Jul 1816 �  7 Sep 1819  Lu�s da Motta Feo e Torres         (b. 1769 - d. 1823)
 7 Sep 1819 - 1821         Manuel Vieira Tovar de Albuquerque (b. 1776 - d. 1833)
1821 �  6 Feb 1822         Joaquim In�cio de Lima
 6 Feb 1822 �  2 Oct 1823  Bishop Jo�o Damasceno da Silva     (b. 1780 - d. 1826)
                             P�voas (President of the Junta)
 2 Oct 1823 - 1824         Crist�v�o Avelino Dias
1824 - 1829                Nicolau de Abreu Castelo Branco    (b. 1781 - d. 1838)
1829 � 25 Jun 1834         Jos� Maria de Sousa Macedo Almeida (b. 1787 - d. 1872)
                             e Vasconcelos, bar�o de Santa
                             Comba D�o
25 Jun 1834 � 20 Feb 1836  Leonardo Jos� Vilela               (d. 1842)
                             (President of the Government Junta)
20 Feb 1836 � 21 Aug 1836  Domingos de Saldanha Oliveira e    (b. 1800 - d. 1836)
                             Daun 
21 Aug 1836 � Aug 1837     Governing Junta
                           - Leonardo Jos� Vilela             (s.a.)
                           - Ant
nio Carlos Coutinho
                           - Fernando da Fonseca Mesquita
                               e Solla, visconde de Francos   (b. 1795 - d. 1857)  
Governors-general
Aug 1837 � 25 Jan 1839     Manuel Bernardo Vidal
25 Jan 1839 � 23 Nov 1839  Ant�nio Manuel de Noronha          (b. 1772 - d. 1860)
23 Nov 1839 - 1842         Manuel Eleut�rio Malheiro (acting) (b. 1793 - d. 1855)
1842 � 10 Jul 1843         Jos� Xavier Bressane Leite         (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
10 Jul 1843 � 1844         Government Council   
                           - Carlos Augusto Franco
                           - Joaquim Ant
nio de Carvalho e
                               Menezes
                           - Luiz Gomes Ribeiro 
                           - Ant
nio de Azevedo Galiano   
1844 - 1845                Louren�o Germack Possolo           (b. 1779 - d. 1848)
1845 - 1848                Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
Apr 1848 - Aug 1851        Adri�o Ac�cio da Silveira Pinto    (b. 1795 - d. 1868)
Aug 1851 - Feb 1853        Ant�nio S�rgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
Feb 1853 - Sep 1853        Ant�nio Ricardo Gra�a
Sep 1853 - Mar 1854        Miguel Ximenes Rodrigues Sandoval  (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                             de Castro e Viegas, visconde de 
                             Pinheiro
Mar 1854 - Oct 1854        Provisional Junta
                           - Joaquim de S�o Bento Moreira Reis(b. 1812 - d. 1887)
                           - Antonio Faustino dos Santos
                               Crespo
                           - Jo�o Jacinto Tavares

Oct 1854 - Aug 1860        Jos� Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
                             (1st time) 
Aug 1860 - Feb 1861        Carlos Augusto Franco
Feb 1861 - Sep 1862        Sebasti�o Lopes de Calheiros       (b. 1816 - d. 1899)
                             e Meneses
Sep 1862 - Sep 1865        Jos� Baptista de Andrade           (b. 1819 - d. 1902)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1865 � Mar 1866        Jos� Lino de Oliveira
             (b. 1803 - d. 1885)
                             (president of Governing Council)
Mar 1866 - Apr 1869        Francisco Ant
nio Gon�alves        (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                             Cardoso
Apr 1869 - Jun 1870        Jos� Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jun 1870 - Sep 1870        Joaquim Jos� da Gra�a              (b. 1825 - d. 1889) 
Sep 1870 - Mar 1873        Jos� Maria da Ponte e Horta        (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
Mar 1873 - May 1876        Jos� Baptista de Andrade           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
May 1876 - Jun 1876         Government Council
                           - Tom�s Gomes de Almeida
                           - Luis Carlos Garcia de Miranda
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida (1st time)
                           - Ant
nio do Nascimento Pereira    (b. 1833 - d. 1899)
                              de Sampaio                     
Jun 1876 - Jul 1878        Caetano Alexandre de Almeida       (b. 1824 - d. 1894)
                             e Albuquerque
Jul 1878 - Jul 1880        Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
Jul 1880 -  7 Jun 1882     Ant�nio Eleut�rio Dantas           (b. 1835 - d. 1882)
Jun 1882 - Aug 1882        Government Council
                           - Jos� Sebasti�o de Almeida Neto
                           - Miguel Gomes de Almeida 
(2nd time)
                           - Adelino Antero de S� (1st time)  (b. 1862 - d. 1887)
                           - Joaquim Jos� Coelho de Carvalho 
Aug 1882 - Jan 1886        Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             Amaral
Jan 1886 - Apr 1886        Government Council
                           - Ant
nio Tom�s da Silva Leit�o e  (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
                               Castro
                           - Adelino Antero de S� (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Onofre de Paiva Andrade  
                           - Guilherme Gomes Coelho                       
Apr 1886 - 25 Aug 1892     Guilherme Auguste de Brito Cap�lo  (b. 1839 - d. 1926)
                             (1st time)
25 Aug 1892 - Oct 1893     Jaime L�bo de Brito Godins (acting)
Oct 1893 - Nov 1894        
lvaro Antonio da Costa Ferreira   (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
                             (1st time)
Nov 1894 � Apr 1895        Francisco Eugenio Pereira de
                             Miranda
Apr 1895 � Jun 1896        �lvaro Ant
nio da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)           
Jun 1896 - Feb 1897        Guilherme Auguste de Brito Cap�lo  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Feb 1897 � Apr 1897        Government Council
                           - Ant
nio Dias Ferreira
                           - Ant
nio Maria Vieira Lisboa
                           - Jos� Maria Pinto da Costa
                           - Louren�o Justiniano Padrel       (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
Apr 1897 - Oct 1900        Ant�nio Duarte Ramada Curto        (b. 1849 - d. 1921) 
                             (1st time)
Oct 1900 - May 1903        Francisco Xavier Cabral de         (b. 1859 - d. 1908) 
                             Moncada
May 1903 - Mar 1904        Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (b. 1865 - d. 1907)
                             (1st time)
Mar 1904 - Dec 1904        Cust�dio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
Dec 1904 - Mar 1906        Ant�nio Duarte Ramada Curto        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Mar 1906 - May 1906        Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (1st time)(acting)
Mar 1906 - May 1907        Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa  (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
May 1907 � Jun 1907        Ernesto Augusto Gomes de Sousa
                             (2nd time)(acting)      
Jun 1907 - Jun 1909        Henrique Mitchell de Paiva         (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
                             Couceiro 
Jun 1909 - Aug 1909        �lvaro Ant�nio da Costa Ferreira   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
Aug 1909 - Dec 1909        Government Council   
                           - Jo�o Evangelista de Lima Vidal   (b. 1874 - d. 1958)
                           - Manuel Pereira Pimenta de Sousa e
                               Castro
                           - Francisco Maria Cabral de Fran�a      
16 Dec 1909 - 26 Oct 1910  Jos� Augusto Alves Ro�adas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
26 Oct 1910 - 18 Jan 1911  Caetano Francisco Cl�udio Eug�nio  (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
                             Gon�alves (acting)
18 Jan 1911 - 26 Feb 1912  Manuel Maria Coelho                (b. 1857 - d. 1943)
26 Feb 1912 -  7 Mar 1912  Manuel Moreira da Fonseca (acting)
 7 Mar 1912 - 17 Jun 1912  Ant
nio Eduardo Romeiras de Macedo  
17 Jun 1912 - Mar 1915     Jos� Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (b. 1867 - d. 1955)
                             de Matos (1st time)
Mar 1915                   Mario Teixeira Malheiros (acting)
Mar 1915 - Oct 1915        Ant�nio J�lio da Costa Pereira de
  (b. 1852 - d. 1917)
                             E�a                            
Oct 1915                    Government Council
                           - Manuel do Sacramento Monteiro    (d. 1944)
                           - Alberto Barbosa de Queir�s
                           - Mario Teixeira Malheiros
Oct 1915 - Apr 1916        Francisco Pais Teles de Utra
                             Machado (acting)
Apr 1916 - 19 Oct 1917     Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
19 Oct 1917 - 14 Sep 1918  Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
14 Sep 1918 - 10 May 1919  Filomeno da C�mara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
10 May 1919 - Jul 1919     Ant
nio Nogueira Mimoso Guerra     (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
                             (acting)
Jul 1919 � Apr 1920        Francisco Coelho do Amaral Reis,   (b. 1873 - d. 1938)
                             visconde de Pedralva                    
Apr 1920 - Oct 1920        Isidoro Pedro Leger Pereira Leite  (b. c.1870 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
Oct 1920 � Mar 1921        Jos� In�cio da Silva (acting)
Mar 1921 - Apr 1921        Jos� de Abreu Barbosa Bacelar      (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
                             (acting) 
High commissioners and Governors-general
Apr 1921 - Sep 1923        Jos� Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton    (s.a.)
                             de Matos (2nd time)
Sep 1923 � 14 Aug 1924     Miguel de Almeida Santos (acting)  
14 Aug 1924 - 6 Sep 1924   Jo�o Augusto Crispiniano Soares
 6 Sep 1924 - Jun 1925     Antero Tavares de Carvalho
Jun 1925 - 21 Jan 1926      Francisco Cunha R�go Chaves        (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
Jan 1926 - 16 Sep 1926      Artur de Sales Henriques (acting)           
16 Sep 1926 - Nov 1928     Ant�nio Vicente Ferreira           (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
Nov 1928 - Feb 1929        Ant�nio Damas Mora (acting)        (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
Feb 1929 - Mar 1930        Filomeno da C�mara Melo Cabral     (s.a.)
Mar 1930 � 31 Mar 1930     Genipro da Cunha de E�a Costa
     (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
                             Freitas e Almeida (acting)
31 Mar 1930 �  3 Jul 1930  Bento Esteves Roma                 (b. 1884 - d. 1953)
 3 Jul 1930 - 1931         Jos� Dion�sio Carneiro de Sousa    (b. 1868 - d. 1962)
                             e Faro
1931 � 1934                Eduardo Ferreira Viana             (b. c.1885 - d. 19..)
Apr 1933 � Nov 1933        Ernesto Gon�alves Amaro            (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Viana)

1934 - 1935                J�lio Garc�s de Lencastre          (b. 1882 - d. 1970)
1935 - 1939                Ant�nio Lopes Mateus               (b. 1878 - d. 1955)
Aug 1936 � Jan 1937        Vasco Lopes Alves
                             (acting for Matheus)

1939 � 1940                Jos� Diogo Ferreira Martins (acting)
1940 - 1942                Manuel da Cunha e Costa Marques    (b. 1894 - d. 1957)
                             Mano
1942                       Abel de Abreu Souto-Maior
1942 - 1943                �lvaro de Freitas Morna            (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
1943                       Jos� Ferreira Rodrigues de
                            
Figueiredo dos Santos
1943                       Manuel Pereira Figueira
1943 - 1947                Vasco Lopes Alves                  (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
1947                       Fernando Falc�o Pacheco Mena
1947 - 1955                Jos� Agapito da Silva Carvalho     (b. 1897 - d. 1957)
Dec 1950 � Mar 1951        Jos� Antonio Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
Aug 1951 � Sep 1951        Jos� Antonio Fernandes
                             (acting for Carvalho)
Aug 1955 � Sep 1955        Manuel da Cruz Alvura  
Sep 1955 - Feb 1956        Manuel de Gusm�o de Mascarenhas    (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
                             Gaiv�o
Feb 1956 - Aug 1959        Hor�cio Jos� de S� Viana Rebelo    (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
Aug 1959 � Feb 1960        Francisco Avelar Maia de Loureiro
                             (acting)
Feb 1960 - 1961            �lvaro Rodrigues da Silva Tavares  (b. 1915 - d. 2011)
1961 � 14 Jun 1961         Manuel da Cruz Alvura (acting)
14 Jun 1961 � 23 Jun 1961  Carlos Miguel Lopes da Silva       (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                             Freire (acting)
23 Jun 1961 -  8 Sep 1962  Ven�ncio Augusto Deslandes         (b. 1909 - d. 1985)
 8 Sep 1962 �  5 Nov 1962  Francisco M. Holbeche Fino (acting)(b. 1898 - d. 1979)
 5 Nov 1962 - 27 Oct 1966  Silvino Silv�rio Marques (1st time)(b. 1918 - d. 2013)
27 Oct 1966 - Oct 1972     Camilo Augusto de Miranda Rebocho  (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
                             Vaz
Oct 1972 - 26 Apr 1974     Fernando Augusto Santos Castro     (b. 1922 - d. 1983)
26 Apr 1974 - 15 Jun 1974  Joaqu�m Franco Ant�nio Pinheiro
                             (acting)
15 Jun 1974 - 24 Jul 1974  Silvino Silv�rio Marques (2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jul 1974 - 28 Jan 1975  Ant�nio Alva Rosa Coutinho         (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
                             (acting to 29 Nov 1974)
28 Jan 1975 -  2 Aug 1975  Ant�nio Silva Cardoso              (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
 2 Aug 1975 - 26 Aug 1975  Ernesto Ferreira de Macedo (acting)
26 Aug 1975 - 10 Nov 1975  Leonel Alexandre Gomes Cardoso     (b. 1919 - d. 1988) 
Presidents 
11 Nov 1975 - 10 Sep 1979  Ant�nio Agostinho Neto             (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
10 Sep 1979 - 26 Sep 2017  Jos� Eduardo dos Santos            (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             (acting to 21 Sep 1979)
26 Sep 2017 -              Jo�o Manuel Gon�alves Louren�o     (b. 1954)            MPLA-PT

 

Presidential Council of the Transitional Government
31 Jan 1975 - 14 Aug 1975  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (b. 1942)            MPLA
                             Nascimento 
                            + Jos� de Assun��o Alberto Ndele  (b. 1940)            UNITA
                            + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock          (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA
                           (chairman in rotation)
Prime ministers
11 Nov 1975 -  9 Dec 1978  Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do         (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             Nascimento
 
9 Dec 1978 - 19 Jul 1991  Post abolished
19 Jul 1991 -  2 Dec 1992  Fernando Jos� de Fran�a Dias       (b. 1934)            MPLA-PT 
                             van D�nem (1st time)
 2 Dec 1992 -  8 Jun 1996  Marcolino Jos� Carlos Moco         (b. 1953)            MPLA-PT 
 
8 Jun 1996 - 29 Jan 1999  Fernando Jos� de Fran�a Dias       (s.a.)               MPLA-PT 
                             van D�nem (2nd time)
29 Jan 1999 -  6 Dec 2002  Vacant
 6 Dec 2002 - 30 Sep 2008  Fernando "Nando" da Piedade D
�as   (b. 1952)            MPLA-PT
                             dos Santos
30 Sep 2008 -  5 Feb 2010  Ant�nio Paulo Kassoma
             (b. 1951)            MPLA -PT
 5 Feb 2010 -               Post abolished


Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile

[Angola - FNLA]

Prime minister (and from 13 Dec 1972, chairman of Supreme Council of Liberation of Angola)
 5 Apr 1962 - 11 Nov 1975  �lvaro Holden Roberto             (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA
                             (provisional )( in Leopoldville
                             [Kinshasa], Congo exile)

Territorial Dispute: Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional de Liberta��o para de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.28 Mar 1962); MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Liberta��o de Angola - Partido de Trabalho (People's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor, social democratic, formerly Marxist-Leninist Communist Oct 1976-Dec 1990, state party Nov 1975-26 Mar 1991, est.10 Dec 1956); UNITA = Uni�o Nacional para a Independ�ncia Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian/conservative, mainly ethnic Ovimbundu, est.13 Mar 1966)


Counter governments: Democratic and People's Republic of Angola
   

[Angola - UNITA;
                        Free Algeria de facto flag 1975-2002]
De facto flag 1979 - 2002

11 Nov 1975                Democratic and People's Republic of Angola ( at Huambo to 1976,
                             Jamba 1976-Oct 1991, Huambo 1992-9 Nov 1994, Bailundo 1994-
                             21 Oct 1999)
declared by FNLA a nd UNITA in opposition to MPLA
                             backed
People's Republic of Angola.
11 Feb 1976 - 1979         Suppressed by Angolan government when it overruns FNLA positions
                             in the north and UNITA strongholds in the south.
31 May 1991 - 30 Nov 1992  Brief end to civil war which resumes after disputed elections.
20 Nov 1994                Cease-fire agreement signed at Lusaka (not fully implemented).
24 Dec 1999                Angolan government forces seize Jamba.
 4 Apr 2002               
Cease-fire ends Angolan civil war, UNIT A demobilizes Aug 2002 .
 

Presidents of the National Council of the Revolution
11 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  �lvaro Holden Roberto              (b. 1923 - d. 2007)  FNLA
                           + Jon s Malheiro Savimbi           (b. 1934 - d. 2002)  UNITA
11 Feb 1976 - 1979         Suppressed
1979 - 22 Feb 2002         Jon�s Malheiro Savimbi             (s.a.)               UNITA

22 Feb 2002 -  3 Mar 2002  Ant nio Sebasti�o Dembo            (b. 1944 - d. 2002)  UNITA
 3 Mar 2002 -  4 Apr 2002  Paulo Armindo Lukamba "Gato"       (b. 1954)            UNITA
                            (acting; chairman of managerial commission)

Prime ministers
23 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1976  Jos� de Assun��o Alberto Ndele     (b. 1940 - d. 2000)  UNITA
                           + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock           (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  FNLA

Party abbreviations: FNLA = Frente Nacional para a Liberta��o de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola, northern regionalist, est.28 Mar 1962); UNITA = Uni�o Nacional para a Independ�ncia Total de Angola (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, authoritarian, conservative, anti-communist, primarily ethnic Ovimbundu, est.13 Mar 1966)


Cabinda


"Cabinda P�tria Imortal"
(Cabinda Immortal
 Homeland)

Adopted 1975
Constitution
Capital : Cabinda City
(Tchiowa)
(Maquela do Zambo
1917-1946)
Currency : Kwanza
(AOA)
(FELC - Republic of
 Cabinda Ibinda)
FLEC National Holiday
1 Aug (1975)
Independence Day
Population : 779,383 (2017)
81,000 (1971)
GDP : $N/A
(included within Angola figures)
Ethnic groups : Bakongo, Ibinda, Lindji, Oyo,
Kotchi, Yombe, Sundi, Lumbo, Mayombe, others
FLEC Armed Forces : 600,
claims 5,000 (2002) 
Religions : mainly Roman Catholic, Protestant,
traditional beliefs
: None; FLEC
29 Sep 1883                Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate (Portuguese Congo).
14 Feb 1885                Portuguese possession confirmed by the Berlin Conference.
18 Jul 1885                Portuguese Congo district created (seat: Cabinda).
1887                       Cabinda constituted as a circunscri��o administrativa within the
                             Congo district, having a its own special resident.
1919                       Made a separate district of Cabinda.
 4 May 1921                Angola divided into 11 districts (subdivided into circunscri�o�s ),
                             Cabinda re-incorporated into the Congo district (by carta
                             org�nica da prov�ncia ).
Mar 1922                   District of Zaire created, the Intendancy of Cabinda
                             becomes part of the Zaire district.
1930                       Intendancy of Zaire and Cabinda.
1932                       With the integration of districts of Zaire and Congo, the
                             Intendancy of Cabinda becomes directly dependent on the
                             governor-general of Angola.
19 Mar 1933                The new Portuguese fundamental law maintains distinction
                             between Angola and Cabinda among its overseas provinces.
 1 Jul 1934                Angola divided into 14 districts (by reforma administrativa
                             ultramarina ).
1936                       Angola divied into 5 provinces: Luanda (districts: Luanda, Cuanza
                             Norte, Congo, Zaire and Cabinda), Malanje, Benguela, Bi�, Hula.
1946                       District of Cabinda restored.
28 May 1956                Cabinda administratively incorporated into Angola.
10 Jan 1967                FLEC establishes a Cabindan Provisional Revolutionary Government
                            ( Governo Provis�rio Revolucion�rio Fiote no Ex�lio ) at Tshela
                             in Congo (Kinshasa) exile.
19 Sep 1974                MPLA declares Cabinda annexed to Angola.
 1 Nov 1974                MPLA occupies Cabinda city.
15 Jan 1975                Portugal meets with Angolan factions (MPLA, FNLA and UNITA) and
                             under Alvor Agreement all recognize Cabinda as part of Angola.
 1 Aug 1975                Independence is declared by FLEC (Republic of Cabinda) in exile
                             (not recognized by Portugal or other Angolan factions).
11 Nov 1975                Cabinda part of independent Angola.
 4 Jan 1976                Angola (MPLA) government forces complete occupation of Cabinda.
 1 May 1977                Cabindan independence again declared by Henriques Tiago Nzita's

                             FLEC faction (with no effect).
16 Oct 1977                "Independent State of Liberated Areas of Cabinda" declared by
                             Luis Franque's FLEC faction (with no effect).
 1 Aug 2006                Angolan government signs Namibe agreement with the Cabinda Forum
                             for Dialogue involving a "special status" for Cabinda, within
                             the limits of Angola's centralized constitution (not recognized
                             by all of FLEC or other factions). 

Residents in Cabinda
1885 - 1886                Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz     (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
                             de Serpa Pimentel 
1890 - 1892                Jos� Ant�nio de Miranda 
                             (did not take office)
1892 - 1897                Jo�o Francisco Nunes
1897                       Lu�s Gonzaga Ribeiro               (b. 1864 - d. 1927)
1899                       Henrique Quirino da Fonseca        (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
Governors of Congo district
14 Jul 1887 - 1889         Jos� Antonio de Brissac das        (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                             Neves Ferreira
1889 - 1890                Ant�nio de Azarado de Vasconcelos 
1890 - 1893                Ant�nio S�rgio de Sousa 
1893 - 1895                Nuno de Freitas Queriol (1st time) (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
1895 - 1896                Jaime Pereira de Sampaio Forjaz    (s.a.)
                             de Serpa Pimenta
1895 - 1896                Eduardo Augusto Gomes de Sousa 
                             (1st time)
1896 - 1897                Nuno de Freitas Queriol (2nd time) (s.a.)
1897                       Eduardo Augusto Gomes de Sousa 
                             (2nd time)
1897 - 1899                Lu�s Bernardino Leit�o Xavier      (b. 1954 - d. 1914)
1899 - 1900                Henrique Quirino da Fonseca        (s.a.)
1900                       Augusto Pereira do Vale
1900 - 1901                Jaime da Fonseca Monteiro          (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
1901                       Pedro de Azevedo Coutinho
1901                       Ra�l Correia Betancourt de Furtado 
1901 - 1902                Jo�o dos Santos Pereira Jardim     (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
Governors of Cabinda district
1946 - 1949                Ra�l de Lima 
1949 - 1956                Ismael Pais
1956                       Jo�o Baptista Duarte Pinheira
1956 - 1957                Jaime Ant�nio Tavares Machado
                             Banazol
1957 - 1958                Norberto Augusto Lopes
1959 - 1961                Jos� Paulo Paix�o Barradas
1961 - 1963                J�lio de Ara�jo Ferreira           (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
1964 - 1965                Artur Jo�o Cabral Carmona          (b. 1916 - d. 1978)
1965 - 1966                Adriano Augusto Pires              (b. 192.)
1966 - 1968                Jo�o Tiroa 
Feb 1968 - 1970            Am�rico Agostinho Mendon�a Fraz�o
                             (acting to 12 Jun 1968)
1970 - 1971                Eurico Ferreira Gon�alves          (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
1971 - 1972                Jo�o Ant�nio Pinheiro              (b. 1921 - d. 2009) 
1972 - 1975                Manuel Freire Themudo Barata       (b. 1919 - d. 2003)
Angolan Governors of Cabinda province
1975 - 1978                Evaristo Domingos "Kimba"          (b. 1944 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1979 - 1980                Lu�s Doukui Paulo de Castro        (b. 1940 - d. 2005)  MPLA-PT
1980 - 1982                Manuel Francisco Tuta "Batalha de                       MPLA-PT
                             Angola" 
1982 - 1984                Armando Fandame Ndembo                                  MPLA-PT
1984 - 1989                Jorge Barros Chimpuati (Tchimpuaty)(b. 1943 - d. 2011)  MPLA-PT
1989 - 1990                Maria Mambo Caf� (f)               (b. 1945)            MPLA-PT
1990 - 1995                Augusto da Silva Tom�s             (b. 1957)            MPLA-PT
Jan 1995 - Apr 2002        Jos� Amaro Tati                    (b. 1957)            MPLA-PT 
Apr 2002 - 2009            Jos� An�bal Lopes Rocha            (b. 1948)            MPLA-PT
 1 Dec 2009 - 2012         Mawete Jo�o Baptista               (b. 1947)            MPLA-PT
Oct 2012 - 2017            Aldina Matilde Barros da Lomba     (b. 1964?)           MPLA-PT
                             Katembo (f)
28 Sep 2017 -              Eug�nio C�sar Laborinho            (b. 1955)            MPLA-PT
 

Cabindan Exile Governments 

[Front for the
                        Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda 1974 flag]
FLEC flag from 1974


Presidents
10 Aug 1974 - Mar 1975     (Jos�) Auguste Tchioufou                                FLEC-Rouge
                             (in Pointe - Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile)
Mar 1975 - Aug 1975        Alfred Raoul                       (b. 1938 - d. 1999)  FLEC-Rouge
                             (in Pointe - Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile) 
 1 Aug 1975 - Jan 1976     Lu�s Ranque Franque                (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  FLEC
                             (in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Cabindan Committee

1975 - Jan 1976            Henriques Tiago N'Zita             (b. 1927 - d. 2016)  FLEC-FAC
                             (in opposition; in Pointe - Noire, Congo [Brazzaville] exile)

Prime minister of the Provisional Revolutionary Government
10 Jan 1967 - Jul 1975     Pedro Simba Macosso                (b. 1927)            FLEC
                            (in Tshela, Congo [Kinshasa] exile)
Prime minister of the Republic of Cabinda
Jul 1975 - Jan 1976        Francisco Xavier Lubota            (b. 1942? - d. 2006) FLEC
                            (provisional to 1 Aug 1975; in Congo [Kinshasa] exile)

Party abbreviations: FELC =   Frente de Liberta��o do Enclave de Cabinda (Front for the Liberation of t he Enclave of Cabinda, separatist movement for national liberation of Ca b inda split 1976-Sep 2004 into FLEC- FAC , and FLEC-Renovada, est . 4 Aug 1963); FLEC-FAC = Frente de Liberta��o do Enclave de Cabinda - F or as Ar madas de Cabinda ( Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Armed Forces of Cabinda , H enriques Tiago N'Zita personalist, split from FLEC, 197 5 -Sep 2004, m erged into FLEC ); FLEC-Rouge Front de Lib�ration de l'Enclave du Cabinda Rouge Front for the Liberation of t he Enclave of Cabinda Congo [Brazzaville] ; MPLA-PT = Movimento Popular da Liberta��o de Angola - Partido de Trabalho (People's Liberation Movement of Angola-Party of Labor, social democratic , formerly Marxist-Leninist Communist Oct 1976-Dec 1990 , state party Nov 1975-26 Mar 1991, est.10 Dec 1956)






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