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Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino - UNESCO World Heritage Centre Close About us www.unesco.org About us Introducing UNESCO Governing bodies Member States Director-General Goodwill Ambassadors Secretariat History How we work Programme Strategy Accountability Where we are UNESCO House Visit us Field offices Institutes and Centres Contact us Special themes Africa Biodiversity Initiative Climate Change Culture of Peace & Non-Violence Dialogue among Civilizations Education for Sustainable Development Foresight and Anticipation Gender Equality HIV and AIDS ICT in Education Indigenous Peoples Least Developed Countries Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses Science Education Small Island Developing States Youth Major programmes Education Natural Sciences Social & Human Sciences Culture Communication & Information Online materials Resources Multimedia Conventions & recommendations Publications UNESCO Presentation Kit Statistics UNESCO Worldwide Worldwide Africa Arab States Asia and the Pacific Europe and North America Latin America and the Caribbean UNESCOin countries National Commissions Field offices Institutes and centres UNESCO in other languages English Français Español Русский العربية 中文 For the Press Press releases Media advisories Interviews News Videos Photos Film and radio collection Events Calendar of Events All Events Programme meetings Public Events UNESCO House Networksand partners Networks Partners & Donors Participation Programme Fellowships Opportunities Join us Employment Procurement Prizes and Celebrations UNESCO Prizes Celebrations Commemorative Medals UNESCOand ... Member States United Nations System Intergovernmental Organizations Non-Governmental Organizations Private Sector UNESCO Communities UNESCOEnglish Français Help preserve sites now ! Join the 127,390 Members Login Paraty and Ilha Grande – Culture and Biodiversity (Brazil) Menu
News & Events The List About World Heritage Activities Publications Partnerships Resources   UNESCO  » Culture  » World Heritage Centre   » The List  » World Heritage List Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino Description Maps Documents Gallery Video Indicators Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino

Located in the central part of the peninsula of Baja California, the sanctuary contains some exceptionally interesting ecosystems. The coastal lagoons of Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio are important reproduction and wintering sites for the grey whale, harbour seal, California sea lion, northern elephant-seal and blue whale. The lagoons are also home to four species of the endangered marine turtle.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sanctuaire de baleines d'El Vizcaino

Situé dans la partie centrale de la péninsule de la Basse-Californie, ce site contient des écosystèmes de valeur exceptionnelle. Les lagunes côtières de Ojo de Liebre et San Ignacio constituent d'excellents sites de reproduction et d'hivernage pour la baleine grise, le veau marin, le lion de mer de Californie, l'éléphant de mer du Nord et la baleine bleue. Les lagunes abritent en outre quatre espèces de tortues marines menacées d'extinction.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

معبد الحيتان في ال فيسكايينو

يتميّز هذا الموقع الذي يقع في وسط شبه جزيرة باجا كاليفورنيا، بأنظمة بيئية استثنائية. فالبحبرات الشاطئية في اوجو دي ليبري وسان اغناسيو تشكل مواقع تكاثر الحيتان الرمادية وعجول البحار والفقمات الكاليفورنية والفقمات بخرطوم الشمالية والحيتان الزرقاء، حيث تمضي فصل الشتاء. كما تتضمَّن هذه البحيرات أربعة أنواع من السلاحف البحرية المُهدَّدة بالانقراض.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

埃尔比斯开诺鲸鱼禁渔区

埃尔比斯开诺保护区位于下加利福尼亚半岛中部地区,那里有许多重要的生态系统。地处奥霍德列夫雷和圣伊格纳西奥的沿海环礁湖,是灰鲸、港湾海豹、加利福尼亚海狮、北方海象以及蓝鲸的重要繁殖地及越冬地。环礁湖还为四种濒于灭亡的海龟提供栖身之地。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Резерват китов Эль-Вискаино

Резерват расположен в центральной части полуострова Калифорния и включает целый ряд примечательных ландшафтов. Прибрежные лагуны Охо-де-Льебре и Сан-Игнасио служат местами размножения и зимовки для серых китов, обыкновенных тюленей, калифорнийских морских львов, северных морских слонов и голубых китов. В лагунах отмечены представители четырех исчезающих видов морских черепах.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Santuario de ballenas de El Vizcaíno

Situado en la parte central de la península de Baja California, este sitio alberga ecosistemas de valor excepcional. Las lagunas costeras de Ojo de Liebre y San Ignacio son lugares excelentes para la reproducción e invernada de ballenas grises, becerros marinos, leones marinos californianos, elefantes marinos septentrionales y ballenas azules. Esas lagunas albergan también cuatro especies de tortugas marinas en peligro de extinción.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

エル・ビスカイノのクジラ保護区

source: NFUAJ

Walvisreservaat van El Vizcaino

Het walvisreservaat van El Vizcaino ligt in het centrale deel van het schiereiland Baja California en bevat een aantal bijzonder interessante ecosystemen. De kustlagunes van Ojo de Liebre en San Ignacio zijn belangrijke reproductie- en overwinteringsgebieden voor de grijze walvis, de zeehond, de Californische zeeleeuw, de noordelijke zeeolifant en de blauwe vinvis. De lagunes vormen ook de thuishaven van vier soorten bedreigde zeeschildpadden. Het gebied wordt al vele eeuwen bewoond. Dit blijkt onder andere uit een aantal prehistorische vindplaatsen, rotstekeningen, muurschilderingen en oude ruïnes. Samen vormen ze het bewijs van vroege kolonisatie vanuit Europa.

Source: unesco.nl

EnglishFrenchArabicChineseRussianSpanishJapaneseDutch Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (Mexico) © Evergreen Outstanding Universal Value

Brief Synthesis

The Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino is a serial property on the Pacific Coast of the central part of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula. It comprises two coastal lagoons, Laguna Ojo de Liebre and Laguna San Ignacio, and their surroundings, a complex mosaic of wetlands, marshes, halophytes, dunes and desert habitats, as well as mangroves in the transition areas. The total extent of the two components of the property is of 370,950 hectares, embedded in the much larger El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, Mexico's largest protected area, which in turn is contiguous with another large conservation area to the North. The lagoons are recognized as the World's most important place for the reproduction of the once endangered Eastern subpopulation of the North Pacific Grey Whale. The protection of these winter breeding grounds has been paramount in the remarkable recovery of this species after near-extinction as a result of commercial whaling, including in these very lagoons. Most of the subpopulation migrates between the lagoons and the summer feeding grounds in the Chukchi, Beaufort and Northwestern Bering Seas.

The lagoons are home to numerous other marine mammals, such as Bottlenose Dolphin, California Sea Lion and Harbor Seal. Four marine turtle species occur in the shallow waters which are also an important habitat and nursery for a large number of fish, crustaceans, and others forms of life. Countless breeding and migratory bird species, including for example a major resident osprey population and more than half of Mexico´s wintering population of Brant Goose depend on the lagoons and adjacent habitats. This exceptional sanctuary conserves both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and their delicate interface. The surrounding desert, biogeographically part of the Sonoran Desert, boasts highly diverse flora and fauna.

Despite the protection status, the property is susceptible to the potential impacts of economic activities taking place in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons, in particular benthic and pelagic fisheries, large-scale salt extraction and tourism.

Criterion (x) : The Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino contains the most important breeding grounds of the Eastern subpopulation of the North Pacific Grey Whale. Its protection is intricately linked with saving the species from extinction and recovery after near-collapse due to excessive commercial whaling. Many environmental factors, such as depth, temperature, nutrients, and salinity coincide in Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons to make them ideal mating, breeding and calving grounds. The lagoons also provide valuable habitat for numerous other marine mammals, such as Bottlenose Dolphin, California Sea Lion and Harbor Seal. Four species of marine turtles have been recorded in the lagoons and adjacent coasts, the most important being the green and the loggerhead sea turtles. The shallow, well-protected lagoons with their mangrove stands are also highly productive nurseries for a diverse fish fauna and boast rich invertebrate fauna, and an impressive natural landscape and seascape. The surrounding wetlands attract an extraordinary diversity and abundance of resident and migratory bird species with several hundreds of thousands of wintering birds. The drier terrestrial areas belong to the Sonoran Desert, well-known for its remarkably diverse flora and fauna and a high degree of endemism.

Integrity

The boundaries of the property cover the coastal lagoons of Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio in their entirety. Thereby they encompass a major area of sensitive Grey Whale habitat, a key conservation value of the property. The property is embedded in El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, Mexico's largest protected area and is also an integral part of an even larger contiguous conservation complex. The vast terrestrial protected areas serve as a terrestrial buffer for the lagoons, including as regards the maintenance of sea-land interactions. The biosphere reserve including, and surrounding, the property also comprises a marine strip of five kilometers from the coast as a buffer zone, also serving as a de facto marine buffer zone for the property.

It is important to note that the breeding Grey Whale population, an extraordinary conservation feature of global importance, only spends a relatively small part of its life cycle within the property. In this sense, the property is a telling example of both the benefits and the shortcomings of in-situ conservation. The future of the Eastern subpopulation of the North Pacific Grey Whale will no doubt depend on both the successful conservation of the property and broader international efforts beyond specific sites.

Human impacts are relatively limited. At the same time, it is remarkable that even in a remote desert human activities have been putting increasing pressure on the natural environment. While the whaling has come to a complete halt in the property, ongoing reasons for concern include but are not limited to excessive fisheries, extensive evaporation salt production and uncontrolled tourism development.

Requirements for Protection and Management

The first applicable conservation effort is the Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, a bilateral agreement between Mexico and the United States of America ratified in 1937. Another framework is Mexico's adherence to the International Whaling Commission in 1949, which has been protecting Grey Whales from commercial whaling since its establishment. More recent federal legislation on threatened and endangered native species lists the Grey Whale as "subject to special protection."

A Federal Decree in 1971 established a marine refuge zone for whales in Laguna Ojo de Liebre, followed by another decree one year later establishing several refuges around the lagoons. Yet another decree established a refuge for cetaceans in Laguna San Ignacio in 1979. In 1988, the federal government declared El Vizcaino a biosphere reserve, encompassing today's property. El Vizcaino was recognized internationally under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in 1993.

The Laguna Ojo de Liebre is located next to the port town of Guerrero Negro, a centre for whale-watching but also the site of industrial-scale salt extraction. Vessels transport the salt out of the lagoon to an offshore deep water dock. This vessel traffic, along with other vessel traffic along the coast and increasing numbers of tourist boats, entails risks of disturbance, contamination an even collision with marine mammals. Unlike in Laguna San Ignacio, mining exploration and exploitation are not explicitly prohibited in Ojo de Liebre, bearing a potential risk of future salt extraction at the expense of critical Grey Whale habitat.

Overfishing and illegal fishing occurs in and around both lagoons and is also a broader concern along the Pacific Coast. Besides complex impacts on the marine ecosystems in the lagoons, Grey Whales, other marine mammals and marine turtles can fatally suffer from entanglement in fishing gear. Tourism and related coastal development have a number of undesired impacts when not managed properly, for example inadequate waste management but also direct disturbance through irresponsible and excessive whale-watching. There is also uncontrolled off-road driving and poaching in the surrounding desert. The impressive natural landscape and seascape requires careful planning and management to maintain the integrity of this property.

The challenges are documented in sophisticated management programmes. The Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino has the potential to serve as an example of integrated management of natural resources. Beyond the conservation of an outstanding place there is room for sustainable use of natural salt, harvesting of marine resources and whale-watching. This, however, requires a permanent balancing of interests including those from local communities whose livelihoods depend on the natural resources protected in this property. It also requires skilled and motivated staff, adequate financial resources, and full support from local communities to conservation and management activities. 

Media Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (UNESCO/NHK) Activities (3) World Heritage Marine Programme Linking Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Tourism at World Heritage Sites Activities in Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino News rss  (10) Marine World Heritage-inspired artwork to celebrate World Oceans Day 08-Jun-2018 Spearheading a global conservation movement: Marine World Heritage 2018 annual report 06-Feb-2018 Working across borders to protect Eastern Tropical Pacific gems 26-Sep-2017 Reactive Monitoring Mission to "Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve" 18-Aug-2017 Children call on world leaders to save the ocean, launch #My Ocean Pledge campaign at World Oceans Day event 08-Jun-2017 More ... Training in marine spatial planning of World Heritage marine sites in Mexico 12-Oct-2011 President of Mexico Announces Decision to Halt Saltworks Project at World Heritage Site, El Vizcaino Whale Sanctuary 07-Mar-2000 The Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino in Mexico Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1993 08-Dec-1999 Second letter from the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee to the Environmental Groups concerning the Whale Sanctuary of El Viscaino (Mexico) 25-May-1999 Letter from the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee Concerning the Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (Mexico) 04-Dec-1998 Less ... Events rss  (1) Mexico's World Heritage Sites Photographic Exhibition at UN Headquarters 24-Feb-2006-28-Feb-2006 Links Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO) (spanish only) Protectedplanet.net Mexico Basse Californie Sud, Municipality of Mulege N27 47 31.992 W114 13 40.008Date of Inscription: 1993Criteria: (x) Property : 369,631 haRef: 554Web Browser not supported for ESRI ArcGIS API version 4.10. WebGL must be enable, see documentation State of Conservation (SOC) by year 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Protections by other conservation instruments (2 protections / 2 elements)Biosphere Reserves (1 element) El Vizcaino RAMSAR (1 element) Laguna Ojo de Liebre Read more about synergies Global Strategy Criteria Upstream Process Tentative Lists World Heritage List Nominations World Heritage List New Inscribed Properties Interactive Map World Heritage in Danger The List in Danger Success Stories

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